This is an informed-consent document that has been prepared to help inform you about facial implant surgery, its risks, as well as alternative treatment(s).
It is important that you read this information carefully and completely. Please initial each page, indicating that you have read the page and sign the consent for surgery as proposed by your plastic surgeon and agreed upon by you.
Facial implants are specially formed solid, biocompatible materials designed to enhance or augment the physical structure of your face. The precise type and size of implants best suited for you requires an evaluation of your goals, the features you wish to correct and your surgeon’s judgment. While any area of your face can be augmented with implants, the cheekbones, chin and jaw are the most common sites for facial implants. Facial implants can bring balance and better proportion to the structural appearance of the face and they can help define the face by increasing projection and creating more distinct features. Facial implant surgery is best performed on people whose head and skull have reached physical maturity,
which generally occurs in late adolescence. It’s important to remember that the human face is normally asymmetric to some degree and your results may not be completely symmetric. Facial implant surgery may be performed alone, or as a complement to other facial contouring procedures such as nose or ear surgery.
Alternative forms of treatment consist of not undergoing the facial implant surgery. There may be alternatives to facial implants such as fat grafting or other tissue rearrangements, if appropriate. Risks and potential complications are also associated with alternative surgical forms of treatment.
INHERENT RISKS OF FACIAL IMPLANT SURGERY
Every surgical procedure involves a certain amount of risk and it is important that you understand these risks and the possible complications associated with them. In addition, every procedure has limitations. An individual’s choice to undergo a surgical procedure is based on the comparison of the risk to potential benefit. Although the majority of patients do not experience these complications, you should discuss
each of them with your plastic surgeon to make sure you understand all possible consequences of facial implant surgery.
SPECIFIC RISKS OF FACIAL IMPLANT SURGERY
The human face is normally asymmetrical. There can be a variation from one side to the other in the results obtained from a facial implant.
Degradation of Facial Implants:
It is possible that small pieces of implant material may separate from the outer surface of facial implants. This is of unknown significance, and has not been shown to result in disease.
Lack of adequate tissue coverage or infection may result in exposure and extrusion (exposed) of the implant. If tissue breakdown occurs and the implant becomes exposed, implant removal may be necessary.
Motor and sensory nerves may be injured during a facial implant operation. Weakness or loss of facial movements in the mouth or upper eyebrow resulting in an uneven appearance may occur after surgery. Most individuals will notice a return of motor function; permanent weakness is rare. Injury may also occur to the sensory nerves of the face, neck and ear regions. Permanent numbness or painful nerve scarring
is rare, but may occur.
Damage to Deeper Structures:
Deeper structures such as the eye, nerves, facial bones, blood vessels and muscles may be damaged during the course of surgery. The potential for this to occur varies with the type of facial implant procedure performed. Injury to deeper structures may be temporary or permanent.
Very infrequently, chronic pain may occur after facial implant surgery.
Hair loss may occur in areas of the face where skin has been elevated during surgery. The occurrence of this is not predictable.
It is possible, though unusual, that you may have problems with bleeding during or after surgery. Should post-operative bleeding occur, it may require emergency treatment to stop the bleeding or remove accumulated blood (hematoma). Do not take aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications for ten days before surgery, as this contributes to a greater risk of bleeding. Non-prescription “herbs” and dietary
supplements can increase the risk of surgical bleeding. Hypertension (high blood pressure) that is not under good medical control may cause bleeding during or after surgery. Accumulations of blood under the skin may delay healing and cause scarring.
Although good wound healing after a surgical procedure is expected, abnormal scars may occur both within the skin and the deeper tissues. Scars may be unattractive and of different color than the surrounding skin. There is the possibility of visible marks from sutures. Additional treatments including surgery may be needed to treat scarring.
There is the possibility of an unsatisfactory result from the facial implant surgery. The surgery may result in unacceptable visible or tactile deformities, loss of function, or structural malposition. You may be disappointed that the results of facial implant surgery do not meet your expectations. Future surgery may be necessary should the result of facial implant surgery be unsatisfactory. Partial healing of damaged structures prior to placement of facial implants may interfere with the optimal result from surgery.
Additional Surgery Necessary:
Should complications occur, additional surgery or other treatments may be necessary. There are many variable conditions in addition to risk and potential surgical complications that may influence the long term result from facial implant surgery. Even though risks and complications occur infrequently, the risks cited are particularly associated with facial implant surgery. Other complications and risks can occur but are even more uncommon. The practice of medicine and surgery is not an exact science. Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, as to the results that may be obtained. It may be necessary to perform additional surgery to improve your results following the use of facial implants surgery.
Long Term Effects:
Subsequent alterations in facial appearance may occur as the results of aging, weight loss or gain, sun exposure, or other circumstances not related to facial implant surgery. Future surgery or other treatments may be necessary to maintain the results of a facial implant surgery.
GENERAL RISKS OF SURGERY
Certain medical conditions, dietary supplements and medications may delay and interfere with healing. Patients with massive weight loss may have a healing delay that could result in the incisions coming apart, infection, and tissue changes resulting in the need for additional medical care, surgery, and prolonged hospitalizations. Patients with diabetes or those taking medications such as steroids on an extended basis may have prolonged healing issues. Smoking will cause a delay in the healing process, often resulting in the need for additional surgery. There are general risks associated with healing such as swelling, bleeding, possibility of additional surgery, prolonged recovery, color changes, shape changes, infection, not meeting patient goals and expectations, and added expense to the patient. There may also be a longer recovery due to the length of surgery and anesthesia. Patients with significant skin laxity (patients seeking facelifts, breast lifts, abdominoplasty, and body lifts) will continue to have the same lax skin after surgery. The quality or elasticity of skin will not change and recurrence of skin looseness will occur at some time in the future, quicker for some than others. There are nerve endings that may become involved with healing scars from surgery such as suction-assisted lipectomy, abdominoplasty, facelifts, body lifts, and extremity surgery. While there may not be a major nerve injury, the small nerve endings during the healing period may become too active producing a painful or oversensitive area due to the small sensory nerve involved with scar tissue. Often, massage and early non-surgical intervention resolves this. It is important to discuss post-surgical pain with your surgeon.
It is possible, though unusual, to experience a bleeding episode during or after surgery. Should post-operative bleeding occur, it may require emergency treatment to drain accumulated blood or you may require a blood transfusion, though such occurrences are rare. Increased activity too soon after surgery can lead to increased chance of bleeding and additional surgery. It is important to follow postoperative instructions and limit exercise and strenuous activity for the instructed time. Do not take any aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications for at least ten days before or after surgery, as this may increase the risk of bleeding. Non-prescription “herbs” and dietary supplements can increase the risk of surgical bleeding. Hematoma can occur at any time, usually in the first three weeks following injury to the operative area. If blood transfusions are necessary to treat blood loss, there is the risk of blood-related infections such as hepatitis and HIV (AIDS). Heparin medications that are used to prevent blood clots in veins can produce bleeding and decreased blood platelets.
Infection is unusual after surgery. Should an infection occur, additional treatment including antibiotics, hospitalization, or additional surgery may be necessary. It is important to tell your surgeon of any other infections, such as ingrown toenail, insect bite, or urinary tract infection. Remote infections, infection in other part of the body, may lead to an infection in the operated area.
All surgery leaves scars, some more visible than others. Although good wound healing after a surgical procedure is expected, abnormal scars may occur within the skin and deeper tissues. Scars may be unattractive and of different color than the surrounding skin tone. Scar appearance may also vary within the same scar. Scars may be asymmetrical (appear different on the right and left side of the body). There is the possibility of visible marks in the skin from sutures. In some cases scars may require surgical revision or treatment.
Excessive firmness can occur after surgery due to internal scarring. The occurrence of this is not predictable. Additional treatment including surgery may be necessary.
Change in Skin Sensation:
It is common to experience diminished (or loss) of skin sensation in areas that have had surgery. Diminished (or complete loss of skin sensation) may not totally resolve.
Skin Contour Irregularities:
Contour and shape irregularities may occur. Visible and palpable wrinkling of skin may occur. Residual skin irregularities at the ends of the incisions or “dog ears” are always a possibility when there is excessive redundant skin. This may improve with time, or it can be surgically corrected.
Skin Discoloration / Swelling:
Some bruising and swelling will normally occur. The skin in or near the surgical site can appear either lighter or darker than surrounding skin. Although uncommon, swelling and skin discoloration may persist for long periods of time and, in rare situations, may be permanent.
Itching, tenderness, or exaggerated responses to hot or cold temperatures may occur after surgery. Usually this resolves during healing, but in rare situations it may be chronic.
Major Wound Separation:
Wounds may separate after surgery. Should this occur, additional treatment including surgery may be necessary.
Most surgical techniques use deep sutures. You may notice these sutures after your surgery. Sutures may spontaneously poke through the skin, become visible or produce irritation that requires suture removal.
Wound disruption or delayed wound healing is possible. Some areas of the skin may not heal normally and may take a long time to heal. Areas of skin may die. This may require frequent dressing changes or further surgery to remove the non-healed tissue. Individuals who have decreased blood supply to tissue from past surgery or radiation therapy may be at increased risk for wound healing and poor surgical outcome. Smokers have a greater risk of skin loss and wound healing complications.
Damage to Deeper Structures:
There is the potential for injury to deeper structures including nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and lungs (pneumothorax) during any surgical procedure. The potential for this to occur varies according to the type of procedure being performed. Injury to deeper structures may be temporary or permanent.
Fatty tissue found deep in the skin might die. This may produce areas of firmness within the skin. Additional surgery to remove areas of fat necrosis may be necessary. There is the possibility of contour irregularities in the skin that may result from fat necrosis.
Infrequently, fluid may accumulate between the skin and the underlying tissues following surgery, trauma or vigorous exercise. Should this problem occur, it may require additional procedures for drainage of fluid.
Both local and general anesthesia involves risk. There is the possibility of complications, injury, and even death from all forms of surgical anesthesia or sedation.
In rare circumstances, your surgical procedure can cause severe trauma, particularly when multiple or extensive procedures are performed. Although serious complications are infrequent, infections or excessive fluid loss can lead to severe illness and even death. If surgical shock occurs, hospitalization and additional treatment would be necessary.
You will experience pain after your surgery. Pain of varying intensity and duration may occur and persist after surgery. Chronic pain may occur very infrequently from nerves becoming trapped in scar tissue or due to tissue stretching.
Cardiac and Pulmonary Complications:
Pulmonary complications may occur secondarily to blood clots (pulmonary emboli), fat deposits (fat emboli) or partial collapse of the lungs after general anesthesia. Pulmonary emboli can be life-threatening or fatal in some circumstances. Inactivity and other conditions may increase the incidence of blood clots traveling to the lungs causing a major blood clot that may result in death. It is important to discuss with your physician any past history of swelling in your legs or blood clots that may contribute to this condition. Cardiac complications are a risk with any surgery and anesthesia, even in patients without symptoms. If you experience shortness of breath, chest pains, or unusual heart beats, seek medical attention immediately. Should any of these complications occur, you may require hospitalization and
Venous Thrombosis and Sequelae:
Thrombosed veins, which resemble cords, occasionally develop in the area of the breast or around IV sites, and usually resolve without medical or surgical treatment. It is important to discuss with your surgeon any birth control pills you are taking. Certain high estrogen pills may increase your risk of thrombosed veins.
In rare cases, local allergies to tape, suture material and glues, blood products, topical preparations or injected agents have been reported. Serious systemic reactions including shock (anaphylaxis) may occur in response to drugs used during surgery and prescription medicines. Allergic reactions may require additional treatment.
Unexpected drug allergies, lack of proper response to medication, or illness caused by the prescribed drug are possibilities. It is important for you to inform your physician of any problems you have had with any medication or allergies to medication, prescribed or over the counter, as well as medications you now regularly take.
Symmetrical body appearance may not result after surgery. Factors such as skin tone, fatty deposits, skeletal prominence, and muscle tone may contribute to normal asymmetry in body features. Most patients have differences between the right and left side of their bodies before any surgery is performed. Additional surgery may be necessary to attempt to diminish asymmetry.
Surgical Wetting Solutions:
There is the possibility that large volumes of fluid containing dilute local anesthetic drugs and epinephrine that is injected into fatty deposits during surgery may contribute to fluid overload or systemic reaction to these medications. Additional treatment including hospitalization may be necessary.
Persistent Swelling (Lymphedema):
Persistent swelling can occur following surgery.
Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, on the results that may be obtained. The body is not asymmetric and almost everyone has some degree of unevenness which may not be recognized in advance. One side of the face may be slightly larger, one side of the face droopier. The breast and trunk area exhibits the same possibilities. Many of such issues cannot be fully corrected with surgery. The more realistic your expectations as to results, the better your results will be in your eye. Some patients never achieve their desired goals or results, at no fault of the surgeon or surgery. You may be disappointed with the results of surgery. Asymmetry, unanticipated shape and size, loss of function, wound disruption, poor healing, and loss of sensation may occur after surgery. Size may be incorrect. Unsatisfactory surgical scar location or appearance may occur. It may be necessary to perform additional surgery to improve your results.
Smoking, Second-Hand Smoke Exposure, Nicotine Products (Patch, Gum, Nasal Spray):
Patients who are currently smoking or use tobacco or nicotine products (patch, gum, or nasal spray) are at a greater risk for significant surgical complications of skin dying and delayed healing and additional scarring. Individuals exposed to second-hand smoke are also at potential risk for similar complications attributable to nicotine exposure. Additionally, smoking may have a significant negative effect on anesthesia and recovery from anesthesia, with coughing and possibly increased bleeding. Individuals who are not exposed to tobacco smoke or nicotine-containing products have a significantly lower risk of this type of complication. Please indicate your current status regarding these items below: